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Major histocompatibility complex genes influence the outcome of HIV infection. Ancestral haplotypes with C4 null alleles explain diverse HLA associations.




 

Hum Immunol. 1990 Dec;29(4):282-95. Unique Identifier : AIDSLINE

Several alleles at multiple HLA loci have been found to be associated with infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): HLA A1; B8, B35; Cw7, Cw4; DR1, DR3 and DQ1, are associated with particular disease manifestations and/or disease progression. Furthermore, in a pilot study we have shown an increase in the frequency of C4 null alleles and suggested that all the reported HLA alleles could reflect association with a limited number of ancestral haplotypes (AHs). On this occasion, we studied 122 Caucasoid patients classified according to Centers for Disease Control (CDC) criteria. The control group consisted of 67 seronegative homosexual or bisexual males at risk of developing HIV infection. C4 null alleles were unequivocally present in 58% of patients in CDC IV compared with 33% of the seronegative subjects (chi 2 = 5.65, p less than 0.05). Furthermore, C4 null alleles could be excluded in only 8% and 16% of CDC III and IV, respectively, but in 30% of the seronegative subjects. An increased frequency of three AHs largely accounted for the increases in C4 null and HLA alleles. To examine the role of specific AHs we undertook a longitudinal analysis of a subgroup of 26 patients who seroconverted under observation. Seventeen of these patients were followed for 32 to 63 months. All seven patients with the 8.1 AH (A1, CW7, B8, BfS, C4AQ0, C4B1, DR3, DQ2) developed low CD4 lymphocyte counts (less than 450 x 10(6)/l) compared with only 2 of 10 patients without this haplotype (p less than 0.002). All three deaths occurred in patients with the 8.1 AH. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome developed in three further cases with either 8.1- or B35-bearing (35.x) haplotypes. Sequential CD4/8 ratios showed an early and progressive decline in individuals with 8.1 or 35.x. Since the 8.1 and 35.x AHs contain deletions of the central major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, we suggest that the genes affecting HIV infection and progression are within the central MHC region.

Alleles Complement 4/DEFICIENCY/*GENETICS CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes Gene Frequency Haplotypes Human HIV Infections/BLOOD/GENETICS/*IMMUNOLOGY HIV Seropositivity/GENETICS/IMMUNOLOGY HLA Antigens/*GENETICS Leukocyte Count Male Risk Factors Support, Non-U.S. Gov't JOURNAL ARTICLE



 




Information in this article was accurate in May 30, 1991. The state of the art may have changed since the publication date. This material is designed to support, not replace, the relationship that exists between you and your doctor. Always discuss treatment options with a doctor who specializes in treating HIV.