Resource Logo

Substrate features important for recognition and catalysis by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase identified by using novel DNA substrates.


J Virol. 1994 Jun;68(6):3896-907. Unique Identifier : AIDSLINE

The integrase encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is required for integration of viral DNA into the host cell chromosome. In vitro, integrase mediates a concerted cleavage-ligation reaction (strand transfer) that results in covalent attachment of viral DNA to target DNA. With a substrate that mimics the strand transfer product, integrase carries out disintegration, the reverse of the strand transfer reaction, resolving this integration intermediate into its viral and target DNA parts. We used a set of disintegration substrates to study the catalytic mechanism of HIV-1 integrase and the interaction between the protein and the viral and target DNA sequence. One substrate termed dumbbell consists of a single oligonucleotide that can fold to form a structure that mimics the integration intermediate. Kinetic analysis using the dumbbell substrate showed that integrase turned over, establishing that HIV-1 integrase is an enzyme. Analysis of the disintegration activity on the dumbbell substrate and its derivatives showed that both the viral and target DNA parts of the molecule were required for integrase recognition. Integrase recognized target DNA asymmetrically: the target DNA upstream of the viral DNA joining site played a much more important role than the downstream target DNA in protein-DNA interaction. The site of transesterification was determined by both the DNA sequence of the viral DNA end and the structure of the branched substrate. Using a series of disintegration substrates with various base modifications, we found that integrase had relaxed structural specificity for the hydroxyl group used in transesterification and could tolerate distortion of the double-helical structure of these DNA substrates.

Base Sequence Binding Sites DNA/CHEMISTRY/GENETICS/*METABOLISM DNA Nucleotidyltransferases/*METABOLISM DNA, Viral/CHEMISTRY/GENETICS/METABOLISM HIV-1/*ENZYMOLOGY Kinetics Molecular Sequence Data Nucleic Acid Conformation Substrate Specificity Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. Virus Integration/PHYSIOLOGY JOURNAL ARTICLE


Information in this article was accurate in August 30, 1994. The state of the art may have changed since the publication date. This material is designed to support, not replace, the relationship that exists between you and your doctor. Always discuss treatment options with a doctor who specializes in treating HIV.