J Infect Dis. 1994 Jul;170(1):157-64. Unique Identifier : AIDSLINE
The individual antibacterial activities of clofazimine, ethambutol, and
rifampin in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia in
patients with AIDS were determined. Sixty human immunodeficiency virus
1-infected patients who had at least one blood culture positive for M.
avium complex were randomized to receive either clofazimine (200 mg),
ethambutol (15 mg/kg), or rifampin (600 mg) once daily for 4 weeks. Only
ethambutol resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the
level of mycobacteremia. The median change in individual baseline colony
counts was -0.60 log10 cfu/mL after 4 weeks of ethambutol (P = .046). In
contrast, median changes in individual baseline colony counts were -0.2
log10 cfu/mL and +0.2 log10 cfu/mL for clofazimine and rifampin,
respectively (both, P > .4). Ethambutol had greater antibacterial
activity, as determined by changes in the level of mycobacteremia, than
either rifampin or clofazimine, supporting its continued use in
combination with other agents in the treatment of M. avium infection.
Adolescence Adult AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/*DRUG THERAPY
Bacteremia/COMPLICATIONS/*DRUG THERAPY/MICROBIOLOGY Clofazimine/ADVERSE
EFFECTS/*THERAPEUTIC USE Ethambutol/ADVERSE EFFECTS/*THERAPEUTIC USE
Female Human Male Microbial Sensitivity Tests Middle Age
Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection/COMPLICATIONS/*DRUG
THERAPY Rifampin/ADVERSE EFFECTS/*THERAPEUTIC USE Support, Non-U.S.
Gov't CLINICAL TRIAL JOURNAL ARTICLE RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL