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Fluconazole vs itraconazole-flucytosine association in the treatment of esophageal candidiasis in AIDS patients. A double-blind, multicenter placebo-controlled study. The Candida Esophagitis Multicenter Italian Study (CEMIS) Group.




 

Chest. 1996 Dec;110(6):1507-14. Unique Identifier : AIDSLINE

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess the role and the therapeutic efficacy of fluconazole and itraconazole-flucytosine association compared with placebo, in the treatment of endoscopically diagnosed esophageal candidiasis in a selected population of AIDS patients. DESIGN: Double-blind, placebo-controlled study. SETTING: University Hospitals and AIDS Centers. PATIENTS: Eighty-five HIV-positive patients (53 men and 32 women; mean age, 28 years) at first episode of esophageal candidiasis diagnosed by endoscopy grades I to II of Kodsi's endoscopic classification and grades I to IIa of Barbaro's clinical classification). All the patients selected for the study provided informed consent. INTERVENTIONS: The patients have been double blindly randomized in 3 groups of patients in relation to pharmacologic therapy: (1) the patients of the first group (n = 30) received fluconazole (3 mg/kg daily orally) and placebo (100 mg/kg/daily orally); (2) the patients of the second group (n = 30) received itraconazole (3 mg/kg daily orally) and flucytosine (100 mg/kg daily orally); and (3) the patients of the third group (n = 25) received placebo (3 mg/kg daily orally) and placebo (100 mg/kg daily orally). After 2 weeks of treatment, the patients previously randomized to receive placebo only were double blindly randomized to receive fluconazole+placebo or itraconazole+flucytosine. To evaluate the efficacy of pharmacologic therapy, clinical and endoscopic examinations were performed at weeks 2 and 4 and at the end of follow-up (3 months). RESULTS: At week 2, endoscopic cure (grade 0) was observed in 68.9% of the fluconazole+placebo group and in 72.4% of the itraconazole+flucytosine group (relative risk, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68 to 1.33; p = 0.772); partial endoscopic response (grade I) was observed in 22.7% of the placebo group. Clinical cure (grade 0) was observed in 75.8% of fluconazole+placebo group and in 72.4% of itraconazole+flucytosine group (relative risk, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.77 to 1.42; p = 0.764), with a difference statistically significant for both treatments in comparison to placebo group (p < 0.001). Partial clinical response (grade I) was observed in 27.3% of the placebo group. At the end of follow-up, endoscopic cure was observed in 89.8% of the fluconazole+placebo group and in 94.8% of the itraconazole+flucytosine group (relative risk, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.08; p = 0.695). Clinical cure was observed in 94.8% of the fluconazole+placebo group and in 97.3% of the itraconazole+flucytosine group (relative risk, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.07; p = 0.981). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study have demonstrated that both fluconazole and itraconazole+flucytosine association are efficacious in short-term treatment of esophageal candidiasis in AIDS patients with a statistically significant difference in comparison to placebo. Both therapeutic regimens demonstrated a good therapeutic efficacy, without statistically significant difference, between them, in the rate of endoscopic and clinical cure. Itraconazole+flucytosine association may represent an alternative therapeutic regimen for patients with fluconazole-resistant Candida esophagitis.

*Antifungal Agents/THERAPEUTIC USE *AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/DRUG THERAPY *Candidiasis/DRUG THERAPY *Esophagitis/DRUG THERAPY *Fluconazole/THERAPEUTIC USE *Flucytosine/ADMINISTRATION & DOSAGE *Itraconazole/ADMINISTRATION & DOSAGE



 




Information in this article was accurate in April 30, 1997. The state of the art may have changed since the publication date. This material is designed to support, not replace, the relationship that exists between you and your doctor. Always discuss treatment options with a doctor who specializes in treating HIV.