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Cell-mediated immune system regulation in periodontal diseases.




 

Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 1997;8(1):76-89. Unique Identifier : AIDSLINE

The adaptive immune system consists of humoral and cell-mediated immunity. T-lymphocytes are the key components of cell-mediated immunity. CD4+ helper T-lymphocytes facilitate B-cells to differentiate and produce specific antibodies, whereas CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocytes kill virally infected cells. Periodontal diseases have been associated with a variety of imbalances in the regulation of immune responses. Changes in the ratios of peripheral blood CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes, depressed proliferative responses of peripheral blood lymphocytes, and increased frequency of CD45RO+ memory T-lymphocytes in diseased tissues have been reported in individuals with various forms of periodontal disease. While some studies have shown an increased frequency of gamma delta + T-cells in periodontal lesions, the role of gamma delta + T-cells in periodontal disease remains controversial. The ability of putative periodontopathic bacteria selectively to stimulate certain V beta-expressing T-cells is intriguing and could determine whether a CD4+ Th1 or a CD4+ Th2 cell response is elicited. The prominence of a particular subset of helper T-cells within the periodontal lesion could be a reflection of the stage and activity of the disease, or the types of bacteria present. Regardless, longitudinal studies of the involvement of T-cell subsets and cytokines in periodontal disease are clearly needed.

*Periodontitis/IMMUNOLOGY *T-Lymphocyte Subsets/IMMUNOLOGY



 




Information in this article was accurate in July 30, 1997. The state of the art may have changed since the publication date. This material is designed to support, not replace, the relationship that exists between you and your doctor. Always discuss treatment options with a doctor who specializes in treating HIV.