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The long terminal repeats of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 and human T-cell leukemia virus type-I are activated by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate through different pathways.


Virology. 1997 Jun 9;232(2):337-44. Unique Identifier : AIDSLINE

The LTRs of HIV-1 and HTLV-I have been shown by several laboratories to be activated by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). This agent is a potent activator of protein kinase C (PKC). However, long exposure to TPA downregulates PKC in many cell types. We demonstrated that TPA treatment of Jurkat cells for more than 24 hr resulted in a sever depletion of this enzyme. Therefore, to explore the role of PKC in the effect of TPA on these LTRs, we transfected Jurkat cells with HIV-1 LTR-CAT or HTLV-I LTR-CAT construct after 72 hr of TPA pretreatment. While this TPA pretreatment considerably reduced the HIV-1 LTR basal expression, it strongly stimulated the expression of HTLV-I LTR. Furthermore, when TPA was added after transfection, a strong stimulation of HIV-1 LTR was observed, which could be abrogated by PKC inhibitors like H7 and chelerythryn. However, under these conditions TPA stimulated HTLV-I LTR to a lesser extent than did the long-term TPA pretreatment. Moreover, this stimulation was enhanced by the PKC inhibitors. Thus our data indicate that while the effect of TPA on HIV-1 LTR is strictly dependent on PKC activity, its effect on HTLV-I LTR is exerted via a different pathway that not only does not require PKC activation but rather seems to be antagonized by the activated PKC. Using a deletion mutant of HTLV-I LTR we mapped the PKC-independent effect of TPA to the c-ets responsive region 1 (ERR-1) located in U3 of this LTR.

*Gene Expression Regulation, Viral/DRUG EFFECTS *HIV Long Terminal Repeat *HIV-1/GENETICS *HTLV-I/GENETICS *Protein Kinase C/METABOLISM *Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid *Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate/PHARMACOLOGY


Information in this article was accurate in September 30, 1997. The state of the art may have changed since the publication date. This material is designed to support, not replace, the relationship that exists between you and your doctor. Always discuss treatment options with a doctor who specializes in treating HIV.