J Infect Dis. 1999 Aug;180(2):559-63. Unique Identifier : AIDSLINE
Previous epidemiologic investigations have suggested that persons with
AIDS who are infected with Cryptosporidium parvum have a shorter
survival time than those with other opportunistic infections. In this
study, the effect of immune activation by a crude Cryptosporidium whole
antigen on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection was
evaluated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy persons
without HIV-1 infection had increased proliferative and cytokine
(interleukin-4, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha)
responses to stimulation with the crude Cryptosporidium whole antigen.
This stimulation increased HIV-1 p24 antigen production in in vitro
infection by>30-fold. A similar increase in p24 production was also seen
when stimulation was done after cells were infected with HIV-1.
Neutralization of TNF-alpha reduced Cryptosporidium antigen-induced p24
production by >50%. Results of this study suggest that
Cryptosporidium-induced immune activation may be a cofactor in
regulating HIV-1 production.
JOURNAL ARTICLE Animal Antigens, Protozoan/*IMMUNOLOGY Cells,
Cultured Cryptosporidium parvum/*IMMUNOLOGY Cytokines/BIOSYNTHESIS
Human HIV Core Protein p24/*BIOSYNTHESIS HIV-1/*PHYSIOLOGY
Leukocytes, Mononuclear/*IMMUNOLOGY/*VIROLOGY Lymphocyte Transformation
Tumor Necrosis Factor/BIOSYNTHESIS