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Lineage-specific expression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) receptor/coreceptors in differentiating hematopoietic precursors: correlation with susceptibility to T- and M-tropic HIV and chemokine-mediated HIV resistance.




 

Blood. 1999 Sep 1;94(5):1590-600. Unique Identifier : AIDSLINE

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) entry is mediated not only by the CD4 receptor, but also by interaction with closely related molecules that act as membrane coreceptors. We have analyzed mRNA expression and/or cell membrane exposition of the coreceptors most widely used by diverse HIV-1 strains (CXCR4, CCR5, and CCR3) on purified hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) induced in liquid suspension culture to unilineage differentiation/maturation through the erythroid (E), granulocytic (G), megakaryocytic (Mk), and monocytic (Mo) lineages. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and cytofluorimetric analysis showed the presence of both CXCR4 and CCR5 in quiescent HPCs, but failed to detect CCR3-specific transcripts. Chemokine expression in HPC progenies showed that CXCR4 receptor is detected on the majority of MKs from early to late stages of maturation, whereas it is moderately decreased in the Mo lineage. In the G pathway, two distinct cell populations, CXCR4(+) and CXCR4(-), were observed: morphological analysis of the sorted populations showed that the CXCR4(+) cells were largely eosinophils and the CXCR4(-) were granulocytes of the neutrophilic series. Furthermore, in the E pathway, CXCR4 was almost completely absent. CCR5 expression is restricted to Mo cultures, ie, approximately 30% to 80% cells throughout all monocytopoietic differentiation/maturation stages. Finally, CCR3 mRNA is always absent in all the unilineage cultures. Evaluation of CD4 expression by flow cytometry on both quiescent HPCs and differentiating unilineage precursors showed that the CD4 receptor is present on approximately 15% of the starting CD34(+) HPC population, highly expressed in the Mo lineage up to 80% at terminal maturation, present on 20% to 30% of maturing Mks, and not detectable in either the E or G lineage. Expression of CD4 receptor together with CXCR4 and/or CCR5 coreceptor in the four lineages correlates with hematopoietic precursor susceptibility to T-lymphotropic and macrophage (M)-tropic HIV strains infection: (1) CD4(-) G and E cells were resistant to both M-tropic and T-lymphotropic strains; (2) HPC-derived Mks were susceptible to T-tropic, but resistant to M-tropic, infection; (3) Mo differentiating cells efficiently replicate both HIV strains. Furthermore, we showed that the CXCR4 and CCR5 ligands (stromal-derived factor 1 and macrophage-inflammatory protein-1alpha [MIP-1alpha], MIP-1beta and RANTES, respectively) inhibit HIV replication in both maturing Mo and Mk cells. Taken together, our data show a lineage-specific modulation of chemokine receptor/coreceptor during hematopoietic cell differentiation and extend previous observations on the relationship between the expression of HIV receptor/coreceptors, susceptibility, and chemokine-mediated resistance to HIV infection.

JOURNAL ARTICLE Adult Cell Lineage Chemokines/*PHYSIOLOGY Hematopoietic Stem Cells/*PATHOLOGY/PHYSIOLOGY/*VIROLOGY Human HIV Infections/IMMUNOLOGY/PATHOLOGY/*VIROLOGY HIV-1/*PHYSIOLOGY Male Receptors, Chemokine/PHYSIOLOGY Receptors, CCR5/PHYSIOLOGY Receptors, CXCR4/PHYSIOLOGY Support, Non-U.S. Gov't T-Lymphocytes/IMMUNOLOGY/*VIROLOGY Virus Replication



 




Information in this article was accurate in December 30, 1999. The state of the art may have changed since the publication date. This material is designed to support, not replace, the relationship that exists between you and your doctor. Always discuss treatment options with a doctor who specializes in treating HIV.