Results of a 6-month European study of 77 individuals given AZT monotherapy or placebo early during primary infection with HIV showed encouraging results. AZT therapy appears to confer a clinical benefit when taken during the 6-months immediately following initial infection with HIV. Seven (7) people in the placebo group developed an opportunistic infection compared to only 1 in the AZT group during the mean follow-up period of 15 months. The AZT-treated group experienced a mean rise of 137 CD4 cells/mm3 (this increase is more than 4 times that reported in the Concorde trial). Despite its dramatic effect on CD4 counts, AZT did not significantly affect viral load early in primary infection, as might have been expected. There was no significant difference in viremia between the treatment and placebo groups. The European researchers conclude: "these data demonstrate that zidovudine [AZT] as monotherapy increases the CD4 count and may provide clinical benefits [in this population]. Future clinical trials should focus on therapy combining zidovudine with new antiviral agents in order to achieve greater antiviral efficacy. In the meantime, treatment with zidovudine may be considered in patients with primary HIV infection." See Research Notes for more information on this study.