The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation has awarded Emory University a $6 million grant as part of the Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery (CAVD). The Collaboration, an international network of experts and scientists, works on discovering HIV vaccine candidates. Through the grant, the Emory research team, led by Bali Pulendran, will be able to optimize the TLR nanoparticle approach for an HIV vaccine and to test the vaccine. The research involves creating nanoparticles that mimic viruses and are covered with molecules that activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs). The nanoparticles stimulate long-lasting immune responses to inactivated influenza virus when used in mice. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation started the CAVD in 2006 and has funded 30 grants supporting investigators in 19 countries.