The incidence of TB has decreased in the United States. In 2011, there were 10,528 TB cases; a reduction from 11,171 cases in 2010. However, TB is still a serious threat, particularly to people with HIV, and TB remains the leading cause of death in people with HIV. Recent data brings into clearer focus the intersection of TB and HIV, showing that more people with TB are being tested for HIV. In 2011, the percentage of TB patients tested for HIV rose to 82 percent, from 67 percent in 2010. The percentage of TB patients with HIV-positive results declined from 15 percent in 1993 to 6 percent in 2008, and has held steady at 6 percent for the past four years. The TB and HIV co-infection underscores the need to integrate HIV testing programs for all people starting TB treatment and timely TB testing for people with HIV.
The National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP) works to improve outcomes for people at risk for multiple diseases through program collaboration and service integration. Effective treatment for HIV patients who have either latent TB infection or TB disease is available. The first step, however, is to ensure that people with HIV are tested for TB.