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Researchers from Harvard University Provide Details of New Studies and Findings in the Area of HIV/AIDS




 



2013 DEC 2 (NewsRx) -- By a News Reporter-Staff News Editor at AIDS Weekly -- Researchers detail new data in Immune System Diseases and Conditions. According to news reporting out of Southborough, Massachusetts, by NewsRx editors, research stated, "The objective of this study was to determine the systemic effects of chronic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection on plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). pDCs play a critical role in antiviral immunity, but current data are conflicting on whether pDCs inhibit HIV/SIV replication, or, alternatively, contribute to chronic immune activation and disease. Furthermore, previous pDC studies have been complicated by incomplete descriptions of generalized depletion during HIV/SIV infection, and the effects of infection on pDCs outside peripheral blood remain unclear."

According to the news editors, the research concluded: "The objective of this study was to determine the systemic effects of chronic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection on plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). pDCs play a critical role in antiviral immunity, but current data are conflicting on whether pDCs inhibit HIV/SIV replication, or, alternatively, contribute to chronic immune activation and disease. Furthermore, previous pDC studies have been complicated by incomplete descriptions of generalized depletion during HIV/SIV infection, and the effects of infection on pDCs outside peripheral blood remain unclear. In scheduled-sacrifice studies of naive and chronically SIV-infected rhesus macaques we evaluated the distribution and functionality of pDCs in multiple tissues using surface and intracellular polychromatic flow cytometry. As previously observed, pDCs were reduced in peripheral blood and spleens, but were also depleted in non-lymphoid organs such as the liver. Interestingly, pDCs accumulated up to fourfold in jejunum, colon and gut-draining lymph nodes, but not in peripheral lymph nodes. Most unexpectedly, SIV infection induced a multi-functional interferon-alpha, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta cytokine secretion phenotype, whereas in normal animals these were generally distinct and separate functions. Herein we show a systemic redistribution of pDCs to gut tissues and gut-draining lymph nodes during chronic SIV infection, coupled to a novel multi-functional cytokine-producing phenotype. While pDC accumulation in the mucosa could aid in virus control, over-production of cytokines from these cells could also contribute to the increased immune activation in the gut mucosa commonly associated with progressive lentivirus infections."

For more information on this research see: Multi-functional plasmacytoid dendritic cells redistribute to gut tissues during simian immunodeficiency virus infection. Immunology, 2013;140(2):244-249. Immunology can be contacted at: Wiley-Blackwell, 111 River St, Hoboken 07030-5774, NJ, USA. (Wiley-Blackwell - www.wiley.com/; Immunology - onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2567)

Our news journalists report that additional information may be obtained by contacting H.Y. Li, Harvard University, Sch Med, Div Immunol, New England Primate Res Center, Southborough, MA 01772, United States. Additional authors for this research include J. Gillis, R.P. Johnson and R.K. Reeves (see also Immune System Diseases and Conditions).

Keywords for this news article include: Antigen-Presenting Cells, Viruses, Virology, Immunology, Lymph Nodes, Southborough, Massachusetts, United States, Dendritic Cells, Hemic and Immune Systems, North and Central America, Mononuclear Phagocyte System, Immune System Diseases and Conditions

Our reports deliver fact-based news of research and discoveries from around the world. Copyright 2013, NewsRx LLC



 


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Information in this article was accurate in December 2, 2013. The state of the art may have changed since the publication date. This material is designed to support, not replace, the relationship that exists between you and your doctor. Always discuss treatment options with a doctor who specializes in treating HIV.