J Mol Biol. 2000 Apr 28;298(2):167-85. Unique Identifier : AIDSLINE
Programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting has become the subject of
increasing interest over the last several years, due in part to the
ubiquitous nature of this translational recoding mechanism in pathogenic
animal and plant viruses. All cis-acting frameshift signals encoded in
mRNAs are minimally composed of two functional elements: a
heptanucleotide "slippery sequence" conforming to the general form X XXY
YYZ, followed by an RNA structural element, usually an H-type RNA
pseudoknot, positioned an optimal number of nucleotides (5 to 9)
downstream. The slippery sequence itself promotes a low level (
approximately 1 %) of frameshifting; however, downstream pseudoknots
stimulate this process significantly, in some cases up to 30 to 50 %.
Although the precise molecular mechanism of stimulation of frameshifting
remains poorly understood, significant advances have been made in our
knowledge of the three-dimensional structures, thermodynamics of
folding, and functional determinants of stimulatory RNA pseudoknots
derived from the study of several well-characterized frameshift signals.
These studies are summarized here and provide new insights into the
structural requirements and mechanism of programmed -1 ribosomal
frameshifting. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
JOURNAL ARTICLE REVIEW REVIEW, ACADEMIC Base Sequence
Cations/METABOLISM/PHARMACOLOGY Frameshifting, Ribosomal/*GENETICS
Infectious Bronchitis Virus, Avian/GENETICS Luteovirus/GENETICS
Mammary Tumor Viruses, Mouse/GENETICS Models, Genetic *Nucleic Acid
Conformation/DRUG EFFECTS Retroviruses Type D, Simian/GENETICS *RNA
Stability/DRUG EFFECTS RNA, Messenger/*CHEMISTRY/GENETICS/*METABOLISM
RNA, Viral/CHEMISTRY/GENETICS/METABOLISM Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.