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Binding of host-cell factors to DNA sequences in the long terminal repeat of human T-cell leukemia virus type I: implications for viral gene expression.
Nyborg JK; Dynan WS; Chen IS; Wachsman W; Department of Chemistry and
June 30, 1988
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Mar;85(5):1457-61. Unique Identifier :

Efficient expression of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) genes requires both host and viral proteins and is dependent on DNA sequences in the proviral long terminal repeats (LTRs). We have used DNase I-protection assays (footprinting) to construct a map of protein-DNA interactions over a 250-nucleotide region of the LTR upstream of the start site for viral RNA synthesis. We find that a host factor (host expression factor 1, or HEF-1) binds to the imperfect 21-nucleotide repeats that have previously been implicated in HTLV-I gene expression. HEF-1 binding activity is present in preparations from both lymphoid and nonlymphoid cell lines. However, the boundaries of the protected regions and the presence of a flanking DNase-hypersensitive site vary with cell type. Several regions of binding are detected in addition to the HEF-1 sites, including a complex group of sites 40-90 nucleotides upstream of the RNA start site. A comparison of HTLV-I-transformed T lymphocytes that do and do not express the viral trans-activating protein p40xI shows that none of the observed features of the DNase I footprint pattern correlate directly with the presence of this protein in the extract. These results suggest (i) that the primary recognition of promoter elements in the HTLV-I LTR involves specific interactions with host-cell proteins and (ii) that p40xI influences the activity of one or more of these proteins, rather than interacting directly with the DNA.

Binding Sites Cell Line Deoxyribonuclease I/DIAGNOSTIC USE DNA-Binding Proteins/*PHYSIOLOGY DNA, Viral/*METABOLISM Gene Expression Regulation Human HTLV-BLV Viruses/*GENETICS *Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. Transcription, Genetic JOURNAL ARTICLE