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NLM AIDSLINE
Bovine leukemia: facts and hypotheses derived from the study of an infectious cancer.
Burny A; Cleuter Y; Kettmann R; Mammerickx M; Marbaix G; Portetelle D;
February 28, 1989
Adv Vet Sci Comp Med. 1988;32:149-70. Unique Identifier : AIDSLINE

Bovine leukemia virus is the etiological agent of a chronic lymphatic leukemia/lymphoma in cows, sheep, and goats. Infection without neoplastic transformation also was obtained in pigs, rhesus monkeys, chimpanzees, and rabbits, and was observed in capybaras and water buffaloes. Structurally and functionally, BLV is a relative of the human T lymphotropic viruses (HTLV-I and HTLV-II). HTLV-I induces in humans a T cell leukemia, and its type II counterpart has been found in dermatopathic lymphadenopathy, hairy T cell leukemia and prolymphocytic leukemia cases. At variance with HTLV-I, BLV has not been associated with neurological diseases of the degenerative type. BLV, HTLV-I, and HTLV-II show clearcut sequence homologies. The pathology of the BLV-induced disease, most notably, the absence of chronic viremia, a long latency period, and a lack of preferred proviral integration sites in tumors, is similar to that of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma induced by HTLV-I. The most striking feature of the three naturally transmitted leukemia viruses is the X region located between the env gene and the LTR sequence. The X region contains several overlapping long open reading frames. One of them designated XBL-I encodes a trans-activator function capable of increasing the level of gene expression directed by BLV-LTR and most probably involved in genetic instability of BLV-infected cells of the B cell lineage. The genetic instability puts the cell into a context of fragility and ready to move along a number of stages towards full malignancy. Little is known about these events and their causes; we have presented some theoretical possibilities. BLV infection has a worldwide distribution. In temperate climates the virus spreads mostly via iatrogenic transfer of infected lymphocytes. In warm climates and in areas heavily populated by hematophageous insects, there are indications of insect-born propagation of the virus.

Animal Cattle Cattle Diseases/*MICROBIOLOGY/PREVENTION & CONTROL Cell Transformation, Neoplastic Cell Transformation, Viral Disease Susceptibility Goats Leukemia/MICROBIOLOGY/PREVENTION & CONTROL/TRANSMISSION/ *VETERINARY Leukemia Virus, Bovine/*GENETICS/IMMUNOLOGY Lymphocytosis/GENETICS/MICROBIOLOGY/VETERINARY Neoplasms, Experimental/MICROBIOLOGY Retroviridae/*GENETICS Sheep Species Specificity Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Viral Vaccines JOURNAL ARTICLE REVIEW REVIEW, TUTORIAL

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