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Multiple transcriptional regulatory domains in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat are involved in basal and E1A/E1B-induced promoter activity.
Kliewer S; Garcia J; Pearson L; Soultanakis E; Dasgupta A; Gaynor R;
January 30, 1990
J Virol. 1989 Nov;63(11):4616-25. Unique Identifier : AIDSLINE

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 long terminal repeat (LTR) is the site of activation of the HIV tat protein. However, additional transactivators, such as the adenovirus E1A and herpesvirus ICPO proteins, have also been shown to be capable of activating the HIV LTR. Analysis of adenovirus mutants indicated that complete transactivation of the HIV LTR was dependent on both the E1A and E1B proteins. To determine which regions of the HIV LTR were important for complete E1A/E1B activation, a variety of oligonucleotide-directed mutations in HIV transcriptional regulatory domains were assayed both in vivo and in vitro. S1 nuclease analysis of RNA prepared after transfection of these HIV constructs into HeLa cells infected with wild-type adenovirus indicated that the enhancer, SP1, TATA, and a portion of the transactivation-responsive element were each required for complete E1A/E1B-mediated activation of the HIV LTR. These same promoter elements were required for both basal and E1A/E1B-induced levels of transcription in in vitro transcription reactions performed with cellular extracts prepared from cells infected with dl434, an E1A/E1B deletion mutant, or wild-type adenovirus. No mutations were found that reduced only E1A/E1B-induced expression without proportionally reducing basal levels of transcription, suggesting that E1A/E1B-mediated induction of the HIV LTR requires multiple promoter elements which are also required for basal transcriptional levels. Unlike activation by the tat protein, there was not a rigid dependence on maintenance of the transactivation-responsive stem base pairing for E1A/E1B-mediated activation either in vivo or in vitro, indicating that activation occurs by a mechanism distinct from that of tat induction.

Adenoviruses, Human/GENETICS Base Sequence Chloramphenicol Acetyltransferase/GENETICS/METABOLISM DNA-Binding Proteins/*PHYSIOLOGY *Gene Expression Regulation, Viral *Genes, Regulator Hela Cells Human HIV-1/*GENETICS Molecular Sequence Data Mutation Oncogene Proteins, Viral/*PHYSIOLOGY *Promoter Regions (Genetics) *Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. *Transcription, Genetic Transfection JOURNAL ARTICLE