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Biochemical and genetical analysis of AZT-resistant HIV-mutants.
Biesert L; Zimmermann F; Schroder B; Matthes E; Suhartono H; Dietrich U;
January 30, 1992
Behring Inst Mitt. 1991 Jul;(89):74-80. Unique Identifier : AIDSLINE

Sequential virus isolates from an HIV-1-infected woman treated orally with 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) for over two years showed a 10-fold reduced sensitivity for AZT after 8 months and a 100-fold resistance after 24-32 months of drug therapy. These AZT-resistant mutants were totally sensitive in vitro to other reverse transcriptase (RT)-inhibitors like the AZT-analogue 3'-fluoro-3'-deoxythymidine (FdT) or the chemically less related nucleoside analogue 2',3'-dideoxycytosine (ddC). Even the benzodiazepin derivative 4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-5-methyl-6-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-imidazo [4,5,1-jk][1,4]-benzodiazepin-2(1H)-thione (TIBO), a new drug specific for HIV-1 RT, was inhibitory for these virus strains. Moreover, compounds with different modes of action, e.g. polysulfated polyxylan, exhibited full antiviral activity as well. Thus, AZT resistance seems to be highly specific and should allow to develop further drugs to be used when AZT resistance has emerged. 5.9 kb fragments of the 5'-genomic halves of these sequential HIV-isolates were amplified by PCR and cloned. DNA sequence analysis revealed that the RT gene of the two highly AZT-resistant isolates carried two of the mutations described by Larder et al. [Science 246, (1989)], the Lys 70----Arg and the Thr 215----Tyr transitions. The isolate obtained after 32 months of AZT-therapy in addition contained a third mutation at position 67 (Asp----Asn); in contrast to Larder's report, no mutation was found at position 219. Thus, although these virus isolates showed at least a 100-fold reduced susceptibility for AZT in vitro, the four mutations postulated to be relevant for highly resistant strains were only partially confirmed.

Amino Acid Sequence Antiviral Agents/PHARMACOLOGY Base Sequence Cells, Cultured Cloning, Molecular Drug Resistance, Microbial/*GENETICS DNA, Viral/GENETICS Human HIV/DRUG EFFECTS/*GENETICS/PHYSIOLOGY Monocytes Polymerase Chain Reaction Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Virus Replication/*DRUG EFFECTS Zidovudine/*PHARMACOLOGY JOURNAL ARTICLE