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The diagnostic utility of elevation in cerebrospinal fluid beta 2-microglobulin in HIV-1 dementia. Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study.
McArthur JC; Nance-Sproson TE; Griffin DE; Hoover D; Selnes OA; Miller
December 30, 1992
Neurology. 1992 Sep;42(9):1707-12. Unique Identifier : AIDSLINE

We measured serum and CSF beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2M) levels in HIV-1 seropositive individuals with and without dementia to determine the frequency and diagnostic utility of elevation of CSF beta 2M. We compared 34 samples from 27 patients with HIV-1 dementia with 110 samples from 54 HIV-1 seropositive participants in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, none of whom had progressive dementia. Neurosyphilis and CNS opportunistic processes were excluded in all subjects. We stratified the nondemented subjects by duration of HIV seropositivity and peripheral blood CD4 count. Compared with the nondemented group, demented subjects had significantly higher CSF total protein, IgG%, and CSF albumin/serum albumin ratios. A highly significant association was found between elevated CSF beta 2M and reduced CD4 count (p less than 0.0001). No significant differences were noted between the demented and nondemented groups in CSF WBC count or in the frequency of CSF HIV-1 isolation. The mean CSF beta 2M was 1.9 mg/l in the nondemented subjects compared with 4.2 mg/l in those with dementia (p less than 0.0001). We derived a cutoff of 3.8 mg/l from the distribution of CSF beta 2M in the nondemented group. The determination of CSF beta 2M had a sensitivity of 44%, specificity of 90%, and a positive predictive value of 88% for diagnosis of HIV dementia when compared with nondemented subjects with CD4 counts less than 200. In those without dementia, there was a strong correlation between serum and CSF beta 2M (r = 0.50, p less than 0.0001), but in demented subjects CSF beta 2M was elevated independently of serum levels, suggesting that CSF beta 2M is produced within the brain in HIV dementia. In the absence of CNS opportunistic processes, elevated CSF beta 2M greater than 3.8 mg/l is a clinically useful marker for HIV dementia.

beta 2-Microglobulin/*CEREBROSPINAL FLUID/METABOLISM Analysis of Variance AIDS Dementia Complex/BLOOD/*CEREBROSPINAL FLUID Biological Markers/CEREBROSPINAL FLUID Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteins/*METABOLISM Cohort Studies CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes Human *HIV-1 Leukocyte Count Linear Models Male Predictive Value of Tests Sensitivity and Specificity Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. CLINICAL TRIAL JOURNAL ARTICLE MULTICENTER STUDY