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Transfusion of blood components to persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1: relationship to opportunistic infection [see comments]
Sloand E; Kumar P; Klein HG; Merritt S; Sacher R; National Heart, Lung,
April 30, 1994
Transfusion. 1994 Jan;34(1):48-53. Unique Identifier : AIDSLINE

BACKGROUND: Although a recent study reported shorter survivals in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients who received transfusions, no study has analyzed the relationship in such patients between the frequency of opportunistic infection and transfusion. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Records of 196 HIV-1-infected subjects with CD4 lymphocyte counts below 250 cells per mm3 were reviewed to determine if there were more opportunistic infections in patients who previously received transfusions than in those who received no transfusions. The decline in CD4 cells was also compared, and the frequency of transfusion reactions and red cell alloantibodies was assessed. RESULTS: The frequency of cytomegalovirus (CMV), wasting, and bacterial infections (p < 0.01), but not the frequency of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) (p > 0.2), was significantly increased in the patients who had previously received transfusions, and this effect was independent of CD4 count, race, or risk factor. The frequency of CMV infection, but not of PCP, was also related to the number of units of blood received (p < 0.01). Significant bacterial infections occurred primarily in persons with CMV infection, of whom there were more in the transfusion cohort. When analyzed separately in the group of patients without CMV infection, the frequency of bacterial infection was unrelated to transfusion. The death rate in those who received transfusions was also greater than that in patients who had never received a transfusion. None of the 130 patients who received red cell transfusions developed red cell alloantibodies. CONCLUSION: The higher incidence of certain infectious complications in HIV-1-infected patients who received transfusions indicates that the relationship of transfusion to virus activation in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and the potential benefits of modifying the preparation of blood components should be investigated further.

AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/BLOOD/*EPIDEMIOLOGY/ *TRANSMISSION Blood Component Transfusion/*ADVERSE EFFECTS Blood Groups/IMMUNOLOGY Cell Count Cytomegalovirus Infections/TRANSMISSION CD4-CD8 Ratio CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/CYTOLOGY Didanosine/THERAPEUTIC USE Erythrocyte Transfusion/ADVERSE EFFECTS Female Human *HIV-1 Isoantibodies/BLOOD Male Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection/TRANSMISSION Retrospective Studies Risk Factors Zalcitabine/THERAPEUTIC USE Zidovudine/THERAPEUTIC USE JOURNAL ARTICLE