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Epidemiological characteristics of HIV infection in Federative Republic of Yugoslavia - Serbia and Montenegro (FRY).
Zak Dit Zbar O; Khanlou H; Sicard D; Ilic V; Jevtovic D; Ranin J; Cochin
January 30, 1997
Int Conf AIDS. 1996 Jul 7-12;11(1):134 (abstract no. Mo.C.1456). Unique

Up to 30 September 1995, the total cumulative of AIDS cases in FRY was 509, with an incidence rate of 6,6 per million population by year. The number of patients (pts) infected by the HIV was estimated at 12.000. According to the distribution of adult AIDS cases by transmission group, the injecting drug users (IDU) represented 54% of infected subjects (69% in Belgrade), haemophiliacs 11,7% and homosexuals 10,5%. The male to female sex ratio was 3,8. AIDS manifestations were dominated by opportunistics infections in 78% of patients, wasting syndrome in 11,2%, HIV-associated encephalopathy in 7,5%, lymphoma in 2,2 % and Kaposi's sarcoma in 1,1%. The main opportunistic infections in AIDS pts were pulmonary pneumocystosis, esophageal candidiasis, recurrent Herpes simplex infections, cerebral toxoplasmosis and pulmonary or extrapulmonary tuberculosis. AIDS pts are treated at the Institute for Infectious Diseases in Belgrade, which is the reference centre for HIV infection in FRY.Prevention programmes are oriented in priority to sanitary education of general population and young people, but also towards the main exposed "risk group": the IDU. As a result of HIV epidemic, the social reactions tend toward rejection and social exclusion of IDU and homosexuals and the reaction of physicians generally tends toward repression as compared to professional assistance.Because of lack of many drugs, a lot of opportunistic infections such as cytomegalovirus infections and digestive tract candidiasis cannot be treated, and it is not possible to consider a systematic prophylaxis against pulmonary pneumoystosis and cerebral toxoplasmosis. Epidemiologic situation in FRY still presents the possibilities to limit the extension of HIV infection, but the disastrous economical situation is a great handicap to realize the programmes of prevention and the different activities which were proposed for the management of the epidemic couldn't be applied in totality because of lack of financial means.