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Infectious agents and environmental factors in lymphoid malignancies.
Toren A; Ben-Bassat I; Rechavi G; Institute of Hematology, Chaim Sheba
February 28, 1997
Blood Rev. 1996 Jun;10(2):89-94. Unique Identifier : AIDSLINE

A strong association was found to exist between patterns of lymphoid malignancies and socioeconomic status. B-cell lymphomas and T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia are much more prevalent in developing countries where the chances of acquiring infections especially at a younger age are high. B-cell precursor acute lymphatic leukemia, however, are much more prevalent in the Western world. Many infectious agents are associated with lymphatic malignancies. Epstein-Barr virus is involved in African Burkitt's lymphoma, human immunodeficiency virus-related Burkitt's lymphoma, lymphoproliferative syndrome post-transplantation, and Hodgkin's disease. Other infectious agents which may play a role in lymphoproliferative disorders are human immunodeficiency virus in acquired immune deficiency syndrome-associated lymphoma, human T-lymphotropic virus in adult T-cell lymphoma, Helicobacter pylori in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, theileriosis in lymphoproliferative syndrome in cattle, Avian leukosis virus in chicken bursal lymphoma, and possibly a bacterial infection in immunoproliferative small intestine disease, potentially reversed by antibiotic therapy. The association between infectious agents and hematologic malignancies may be explained by the creation of large populations of activated cells followed by higher occurrences of 'genetic accidents'. This theory may be reinforced in at least some malignancies with the existence of viral proteins which either have complex relationships with key cellular gene products like p53 and Rb which have roles in cell cycle control, or share common motifs with bc1-2, therefore operating as anti-apoptotic elements. Whenever these genes are deranged, cell deoxysibonucleic acid repair or apoptosis are no longer possible, thereby creating a state of genome instability, increased acquisition of mistakes, and increased chances for malignant transformation.

Animal Carcinogens, Environmental/*ADVERSE EFFECTS Helicobacter pylori Human Infection/*COMPLICATIONS Lymphoma/*ETIOLOGY/MICROBIOLOGY/VIROLOGY JOURNAL ARTICLE REVIEW REVIEW, TUTORIAL

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