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HIV risk reduction and service delivery strategies in criminal justice settings.
Inciardi JA; Center for Drug and Alcohol Studies, University of
October 30, 1997
J Subst Abuse Treat. 1996 Sep-Oct;13(5):421-8; discussion 439. Unique

Because of the HIV risk behaviors of substance abusers, particularly injection drug users and those who exchange sex for drugs, and the large numbers who are already infected with HIV or showing symptoms of AIDS, significant service delivery issues are associated with their criminal justice processing. Many strategies have been implemented in correctional settings in an effort to prevent and control the transmission of HIV. A number of these are for the purpose of lowering transmission risk in institutions, whereas others have been structured for the sake of offering prevention/intervention to inmates before they return to the free community. As such, prisons and jails represent opportune settings for HIV prevention and education. The most common HIV control/prevention/education strategies include mandatory testing of inmates for HIV, segregating infected inmates from the general prison population, establishing special health care units for HIV positive and AIDS symptomatic inmates, offering HIV prevention and risk reduction programs, and granting medical parole for the terminally ill. Because drug abuse treatment results in substantial declines in the use of heroin, cocaine, and other drugs, treatment per se can play a significant role in reducing the spread of HIV and AIDS among those coming to the attention of the criminal justice system. Most promising are continuous and integrated treatment services that are tied to the stages of correctional supervision: primary treatment while incarcerated; secondary treatment while on work release, halfway house or community supervision; and, tertiary treatment in ongoing aftercare.

*Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/PREVENTION & CONTROL *Delivery of Health Care/TRENDS *HIV Infections/PREVENTION & CONTROL *Prisoners *Substance Abuse, Intravenous/REHABILITATION