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Prevalence of zidovidine use to reduce maternal-infant HIV transmission, 1994-95.
Gwinn M; Mei J; Linley L; Hannon WH; Centers for Disease Control and
June 30, 1998
5th Conf Retrovir Oppor Infect. 1998 Feb 1-5;:125 (abstract no. 247).

Objective: To derive population-based estimates of the proportion of HIV infected women giving birth who received perinatal treatment with zidovudine (ZDV) to reduce the risk of HIV transmission to their infants. Methods: Dried-blood specimens collected from newborns in 1994-1995 for routine metabolic screening were previously tested anonymously for maternal HIV antibody during survey periods that ranged from 3 to 12 months in seven states. All HIV positive specimens were tested with a modified radioimmunoassay for serum ZDV. Those with a mean ZDV concentration greater than or equal to 0.024 micrograms/mL were considered positive for ZDV; all others were considered negative. Because the half-life of ZDV in newborns is approximately 10-fold that in the mothers, we hypothesized that detectable ZDV had been administered intrapartum or to the newborn. Results: The proportion of specimens positive for ZDV increased between 1994 and 1995 in all seven states. (Table: see text) Conclusions: Treatment with ZDV to reduce perinatal HIV transmission was widely adopted soon after it was recommended in 1994. Observed variation among states was due to the timing of surveys, as well as to development of state policies.

*Anti-HIV Agents/THERAPEUTIC USE *Disease Transmission, Vertical/PREVENTION & CONTROL *HIV Infections/TRANSMISSION *Zidovudine/THERAPEUTIC USE