5th Conf Retrovir Oppor Infect. 1998 Feb 1-5;:125 (abstract no. 247).
Objective: To derive population-based estimates of the proportion of HIV
infected women giving birth who received perinatal treatment with
zidovudine (ZDV) to reduce the risk of HIV transmission to their
infants. Methods: Dried-blood specimens collected from newborns in
1994-1995 for routine metabolic screening were previously tested
anonymously for maternal HIV antibody during survey periods that ranged
from 3 to 12 months in seven states. All HIV positive specimens were
tested with a modified radioimmunoassay for serum ZDV. Those with a mean
ZDV concentration greater than or equal to 0.024 micrograms/mL were
considered positive for ZDV; all others were considered negative.
Because the half-life of ZDV in newborns is approximately 10-fold that
in the mothers, we hypothesized that detectable ZDV had been
administered intrapartum or to the newborn. Results: The proportion of
specimens positive for ZDV increased between 1994 and 1995 in all seven
states. (Table: see text) Conclusions: Treatment with ZDV to reduce
perinatal HIV transmission was widely adopted soon after it was
recommended in 1994. Observed variation among states was due to the
timing of surveys, as well as to development of state policies.
*Anti-HIV Agents/THERAPEUTIC USE *Disease Transmission,
Vertical/PREVENTION & CONTROL *HIV Infections/TRANSMISSION