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Natural infection of a household pet mangabey (Cercocebus torquatus torquatus) with a new simian immunodeficiency virus related to HIV-1 and HIV-2 has implications for the ancient ancestry of HIV.
Marx PA; Chen Z; Kwon D; Smith SM; Gao F; Hahn BH; Aaron Diamond AIDS
December 30, 1998
HIV Pathog Treat Conf. 1998 Mar 13-19;:35 (abstract no. 012). Unique

A new SIV was isolated from a pet red capped mangabey (RCM) (Cercocebus torquatus torquatus) in Gabon. The evolutionary origins of SIVrcm were established from phylogenetic trees of 475bp pol and 954 bpgag gene fragments. SIVrcm gag and pol were discordant in their phylogenetic positions. In trees derived from gag sequences, SIVrcm position was consistent with a new lentiviral lineage. However, in trees from pol sequences of the integrase region, SIVrcm clustered with the HIV-1/SIVcpz lineage. SIVrcm is the first mangabey virus found with significant homology to HIV-1. New studies have shown that SIVrcm has an HIV-2 genetic organization and its nef gene is in the HIV-2 lineage. Studies on the biology of SIVrcm revealed unique co-receptor usage and a unique deletion in the CCR5 gene of the RCM genome. With the discovery of SIVrcm, two of three species of torquatus mangabeys that live along the West African coast are now known to harbor HIV-1 and HIV-2 related SIVs. No other monkey species has such connections with HIV. In ancient times, gaps formed and separated the ranges of sooty and red capped mangabeys. Therefore, the natural range, speciation and evolution of these mangabeys may serve as markers for the time when ancient ancestors of HIV evolved in sooty and red capped mangabeys. The ecology of mangabeys, SIVsm, SIVrcm, HIV-1 and HIV-2 will be discussed to support the hypothesis that mangabey SIVs are ancient in comparison to HIV-1 and HIV-2. The role of mangabeys and the possible mode of HIV's recent emergence will be discussed.

MEETING ABSTRACTS Animal Cercocebus Evolution, Molecular Gene Deletion HIV-1/*GENETICS HIV-2/*GENETICS Phylogeny Receptors, CCR5/GENETICS Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/*VIROLOGY Species Specificity SIV/GENETICS/*ISOLATION & PURIF