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Effect of immune activation induced by Cryptosporidium parvum whole antigen on in vitro human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.
Xiao L; Lal RB; Lal AA; Immunology Branch, Division of Parasitic
November 30, 1999
J Infect Dis. 1999 Aug;180(2):559-63. Unique Identifier : AIDSLINE

Previous epidemiologic investigations have suggested that persons with AIDS who are infected with Cryptosporidium parvum have a shorter survival time than those with other opportunistic infections. In this study, the effect of immune activation by a crude Cryptosporidium whole antigen on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection was evaluated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy persons without HIV-1 infection had increased proliferative and cytokine (interleukin-4, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha) responses to stimulation with the crude Cryptosporidium whole antigen. This stimulation increased HIV-1 p24 antigen production in in vitro infection by>30-fold. A similar increase in p24 production was also seen when stimulation was done after cells were infected with HIV-1. Neutralization of TNF-alpha reduced Cryptosporidium antigen-induced p24 production by >50%. Results of this study suggest that Cryptosporidium-induced immune activation may be a cofactor in regulating HIV-1 production.

JOURNAL ARTICLE Animal Antigens, Protozoan/*IMMUNOLOGY Cells, Cultured Cryptosporidium parvum/*IMMUNOLOGY Cytokines/BIOSYNTHESIS Human HIV Core Protein p24/*BIOSYNTHESIS HIV-1/*PHYSIOLOGY Leukocytes, Mononuclear/*IMMUNOLOGY/*VIROLOGY Lymphocyte Transformation Tumor Necrosis Factor/BIOSYNTHESIS