To determine the prevalence and associated factors with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a cohort of HIV-positive individuals with undetectable viral load on HAART.
From March, 2009 to September 2009, 213 individuals between 18-70 years, period on HAART ≥12 months, viral load < 50 copies/mm3, and CD4 ≥ 200 cells/mm3, were consecutively enrolled at the outpatient clinic of Hospital de Clínicas, Porto Alegre, Brazil. Exclusion criteria were obesity, malnourishment, amputee, paraplegic, previous history of renal disease, pregnancy and hepatic insufficiency. Renal function was determined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) assessed by the modification of diet in renal disease. CKD was defined as an eGFR less or equal than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2, for a period of at least 3 months. Poisson regression was used to determine factors associated with CKD.
CKD was diagnosed in 8.4% of the population, and after adjustment, the risk factors were hypertension (RR = 3.88, 95%CI, 1.84 - 8.16), time on HAART (RR = 1.15, 95%CI,1.03–1.27) and tenofovir exposure (RR = 2.25, 95%CI, 1.04–4.95). Higher weight (RR = ,0.88 95%CI, 0.82–0.96) was associated to normal function.
CKD was a common finding in this cohort of patients and was related to hypertension, time on HAART and tenofovir exposure. We suggest a more frequent monitoring of renal function, especially for those with risk factors to early identify renal impairment.
Citation: Menezes AM, Torelly J Jr, Real L, Bay M, Poeta J, et al. (2011) Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated to Chronic Kidney Disease in HIV-Infected Patients on HAART and Undetectable Viral Load in Brazil. PLoS ONE 6(10): e26042. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0026042
Editor: Esper Georges Kallas, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil
Received: June 28, 2011; Accepted: September 16, 2011; Published: October 12, 2011
Copyright: © 2011 Menezes et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Funding: This work was partially supported by Fundo de incentivo a Pesquisa do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (FIPE), Center for Reseach Support (CAPES/REUNI) and National Research Council (CNPq) of Brazil. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
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