AIDS Weekly Plus
Findings from Johns Hopkins University Advance Knowledge in AIDS/HIV Research
November 12, 2012
2012 NOV 12 (NewsRx) -- By a News Reporter-Staff News Editor at AIDS Weekly -- A new study on AIDS/HIV Research is now available. According to news reporting originating from Baltimore, Maryland, by NewsRx correspondents, research stated, "Assays to determine cross-sectional HIV incidence misclassify some individuals with nonrecent HIV infection as recently infected, overestimating HIV incidence. We analyzed factors associated with false-recent misclassification in five African countries."
Our news editors obtained a quote from the research from Johns Hopkins University, "Samples from 2197 adults from Botswana, Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda who were HIV infected > 12 months were tested using the (1) BED capture enzyme immunoassay (BED), (2) avidity assay, (3) BED and avidity assays with higher assay cutoffs (BED + avidity screen), and (4) multiassay algorithm (MAA) that includes the BED + avidity screen, CD4 cell count, and HIV viral load. Logistic regression identified factors associated with misclassification. False-recent misclassification rates and 95% confidence intervals were BED alone: 7.6% (6.6, 8.8); avidity assay alone: 3.5% (2.7, 4.3); BED + avidity screen: 2.2% (1.7, 2.9); and MAA: 1.2% (0.8, 1.8). The misclassification rate for the MAA was significantly lower than the rates for the other three methods (each p< 0.05). Misclassification rates were lower when the analysis was limited to subtype C-endemic countries, with the lowest rate obtained for the MAA [0.8% (0.2, 1.9)]. Factors associated with misclassification were for BED alone: country of origin, antiretroviral treatment (ART), viral load, and CD4 cell count; for avidity assay alone: country of origin; for BED + avidity screen: country of origin and ART. No factors were associated with misclassification using the MAA. In a multivariate model, these associations remained significant with one exception: the association of ART with misclassification was completely attenuated. A MAA that included CD4 cell count and viral load had lower false-recent misclassification than the BED or avidity assays (alone or in combination)."
According to the news editors, the research concluded: "Studies are underway to compare the sensitivity of these methods for detection of recent HIV infection."
For more information on this research see: Specificity of Four Laboratory Approaches for Cross-Sectional HIV Incidence Determination: Analysis of Samples from Adults with Known Nonrecent HIV Infection from Five African Countries. Aids Research and Human Retroviruses, 2012;28(10):1177-1183. Aids Research and Human Retroviruses can be contacted at: Mary Ann Liebert Inc, 140 Huguenot Street, 3RD Fl, New Rochelle, NY 10801, USA. (Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. - www.liebertpub.com; Aids Research and Human Retroviruses - www.liebertpub.com/overview/aids-research-and-human-retroviruses/2/)
The news editors report that additional information may be obtained by contacting O. Laeyendecker, Johns Hopkins University, Sch Med, Dept. of Pathol, Baltimore, MD 21205, United States (see also AIDS/HIV Research).
Keywords for this news article include: Maryland, HIV/AIDS, Baltimore, Viral Load, RNA Viruses, Retroviridae, United States, HIV Infections, AIDS/HIV Research, Vertebrate Viruses, Primate Lentiviruses, North and Central America, Microbiological Techniques, Virus Physiological Phenomena, Viral Sexually Transmitted Diseases
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