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CDC HIV/AIDS/Viral Hepatitis/STD/TB Prevention News Update
KENYA: TB More Likely in Infants Exposed to HIV-1
Staff Writer
January 7, 2014
Healio (01.03.2014) Aids Weekly Plus

Healio reported on a study that investigated whether children of mothers with HIV-1 have increased TB risk. Lisa M. Cranmer, MD, MPH, of the University of Washington and colleagues investigated 182 infants of mothers with HIV-1 infection. The mothers had received zidovudine during pregnancy to prevent perinatal HIV transmission. The researchers assessed both mothers and infants monthly for a year after the birth. All infants received bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination to prevent TB. The researchers tested the infants for TB using the T-Spot.TB interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA). Results showed that 10.9 percent of children were TB-positive and seven percent had HIV-1. Mothers of infants testing positive were more likely to have active TB. Also, the infants testing positive were more likely to have prolonged fever in their first six months of life. The researchers concluded that health professionals should be aware of the probability of TB disease in infants exposed to HIV-1 and should screen for the disease and treat those who would benefit from preventive therapy. Also, IGRAs can be useful for investigating infant TB incidence, targeting preventive treatment, and making diagnostic decisions. The full report, “High Prevalence of Tuberculosis Infection in HIV-1 Exposed Kenyan Infants,” was published in the Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal (2013; doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000000124).